Understanding victims of sexual violence/ symptoms of PTSD.
( These could but need not necessarily explain the behavioural pattern of a victim of sexual violence/ptsd)
- Recurrent distressing memories, flashbacks of the traumatic event or dreams that are related to the traumatic event.
- Intense psychological distress and physiological reactions when exposed to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event.
- Avoidance of or efforts to avoid distressing memories, thoughts, or feelings, external reminders (people, places, conversations, activities, objects, situations) about the traumatic event.
- Inability to remember an important aspect of the traumatic event.
- Persistent and exaggerated negative beliefs or expectations about oneself, others, or the world (e.g., “I am bad,” “No one can be trusted,” ‘The world is completely dangerous,”).
- Persistent negative emotional state (e.g., fear, horror, anger, guilt, or shame) and an inability to experience positive emotions
- Markedly diminished interest or participation in significant activities.
- Feelings of detachment or estrangement from others.
- Irritable behaviour and angry outbursts (with little or no provocation) typically expressed as verbal or physical aggression toward people or objects.
- Reckless or self-destructive behaviour.
- Hypervigilance and exaggerated startle response.
- Problems with concentration, appetite and sleep
(Source : Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5))